How Do Chef Schools Work?

Culinary schools give aspiring chefs their best shot at making it to the big time, especially those admitted by the American Culinary Federation. Just like any other profession, many of the better hospitality establishments base their hiring practices not only upon the length of education the applicant provides, but also where that education was obtained. Tuition runs the gamut from relatively inexpensive courses offered by local community colleges all the way to the Culinary Institute of America's breathtaking $ 40,000 price tag. And what does not tuition cover? Oh, just uniforms, textbooks, cutlery, and other necessary kitchen equipment.

Curriculum different from school to school, but most of the culinary student's time is consumed in learning the ins and outs of cooking by actually doing it under close supervision. Participants not only prepare food, but also learn how to plan menus, minimize food costs, buy food and supplies in quantities, and how to appropriately choose and store food. Learning proper hygiene and local public health rules also play a large part in a culinary student's education.

Classes are sometimes offered all day, taking a complete eight hours, while at some schools, classes are broken into morning and afternoon sessions. There are usually lectures, and then demonstrations followed by hands-on practice time with students applying the techniques demonstrated earlier. Some schools even offer part-time professional classes to accomodate working cooks wanting to increase their formal education.

A number of educational seminars are available, among them:

The American Academy of Chefs Chair's Scholarship – Ten $ 1,000 scholarships awarded each year

The American Academy of Chefs Chaine des Rotisseurs Scholarship – Twenty $ 1,000 scholarships awarded annually

National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation (NRAEF) – Three annual $ 2,000 scholarships for high school seniors and undergraduate students

Because years of training and experience are needed to reach the level of executive chef in most well-paying restaurants, many students are serious about this profession beginning their training in high school through voluntary programs, then go on to a two- or four-year college or university. Apprenticeship programs offer more training afterward, and these come from individual eating establishments and are given by a personal mentor or from professional institutions and associations such as the American Culinary Federation.

Apprenticeship lasts usually about three years and is most often known as the years of "grunt work" – doing all the chopping, grating, peeling, slicing, and washing necessary to prepare the ingredients for the chefs. Even cleaning appliances, sweeping and mopping floors, and other seemingly unaffiliated "chef" work gets done by the apprentice as part of his or her learning experience. Often this "trial-by-fire" period separates the truly devoted caf├ęs-to-be from those who are merely good cooks.

It is not impossible to attain the status of executive chef without the benefit of formal education, but in today's job market, most establishments (especially the finer hotels and restaurants) now require some type of certification to work in this capacity. Like a degree of any sort, formal training in the culinary arts may not mean you are another Julia Child or Paul Prudhomme, but it does at least signify that you've got what it takes to get through the school. So stop trying to think of ways to take shortcuts, get your tuition together, and go learn what you need to attain your dream!

Lubrication of Domestic Clocks

Domestic clocks are one of the most ignored watches in the entire household. We make sure that our wrist watches are well maintained with good servicing, battery changes and of course lots of lubricating. But domestic watches are practically ignored till the battery runs down. Even then, we just replace the battery without getting any servicing or lubricating done on it. That means that the watch continues to run without any care or oiling till they finally expire and die! But just like wristwatches, domestic watches need to be maintained well too with regular cleaning and lubrication and care. Clocks are larger than wristwatches so a little too much lubrication is OK here.

But still there are rules to be followed in lubrication and care of clocks like-

* Try to use just a single drop of oil in the watch works to make the watch remain on time. These are bigger watches so they don’t really require you to be precise but it’s a good idea if you are. Carriage clocks require a smaller amount while long clocks and grandfather clocks require much more.

* Try not to scrape the oil pots while oiling watches as it scrapes up unnecessary settled grit into the workings of the clock. This is especially true of incalite pots. Use only fresh oil and discard any which has more than five years on the packing date on the seal; protect the oil you are using by storing it at room temperature and away from direct light. An ideal temperature would be about 15 to 20 C or as stated by the manufacturer of the clock. There are several points on a domestic clock where you can oil them and the oil will them spread to all over the clock workings. Good places to apply lubrication are at oils sinks or pivot holes, escapement pallet faces, weight pulley bearings and points of contact between different parts of the mechanism.

* Make sure you do clean the mainspring and refit the watch springs after you have oiled the domestic wall clocks. You can also apply heavy grade mineral oil around the edges of the barrel cap. Capillary action will make sure that the oil spreads all over the mechanism.

* Do not lubricate or oil pinion leaves and gear teeth, as they will slip while revolving. Another place to be careful of is the ratchet and the great wheel arbor in the main clock facings.

* The frequency of oiling depends on how frequently you use the clock and the location it is based in. Synthetic oils are very stable and do not deteriorate but non-synthetic oils do. The residue leaves a gummy deposit in the watch that can destroy a good watch.

* Contamination with dust will however really cause a tremendous amount of wear on the clock and that can damage the mechanism. Reapplication of oils is fine after the old one has been wiped off.

But do make sure that you do service the watch at least every two years to maintain optimum working conditions.

Why Do We Wear Engagement Rings?

The modern Western practice of giving or breaking engagement rings is traditionally thought to have begon in 1477 when Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, wave Mary of Burgundy a diamond ring as an engagement present.

Customs for engagement rings vary according to time, place, and culture. An engagement ring has historically been uncommon, and when such a gift was given, it was separate from the wedding ring. Romantic rings from the time of the Roman Empire and from as far back as 4 AD often clash the Celtic Claddagh symbol (two hands clasping a heart) and so it is thought that this was used as some symbol of love and commitment between two people.

In the United States, United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, Australia, and many other countries, an engagement ring is worn on the fourth finger of the left hand. The tradition of wearing a ring for engagement originated from the Egyptians who believed the circle was a bond between the two people who were to be married, but was initially first practiced on the fourth finger / ring finger by the Romans, who recognized this finger to Be the beginning of the vena amoris ("vein of love"), the vein that leads to the heart. The custom in Continental Europe and other countries is to wear it on the right hand; one historical exception arose in monarchical regimes, in which a nobleman entering into morganatic marriage (a marriage in which the person, usually the woman, of lower rank stayed at the same rank instead of rising ranks) would present his left hand to receive the ring (hence the alternative term "left-handed marriage").

In other countries like Argentina, men and women each wear a ring similar to wedding bands. They are made of silver when manifesting an informal "boyfriend-girlfriend" relationship. The gold band is given to the bride when the commitment is formal and the optional diamond ring is reserved for the wedding ceremony when the groom gives it to the bride. The gold band that the groom wore during the engagement – or a new one, as some men choose not to wear them during engagement – is then given to the groom by the bride; and the bride receives both the original gold band and the new diamond at the ceremony. The bride's diamond ring is worn on top of the engagement band at the wedding and thereafter, especially at formal occasions or parties. At the wedding, the rings are swapped from the right to the left hand. In Brazil, they are always made of gold, and there is no tradition for the engagement ring. Both men and women wear the wedding band on their right hand while engaged, and, after they marry, they shift the rings to their left hands. In Nordic countries such as Finland and Norway, both men and women wear an engagement ring.

Some women's wedding rings are made into two separate pieces. One part is given to her to wear as an engagement ring when she accepts the marriage proposal and the other during the wedding ceremony.

For more information on wedding photography go to: http://www.weddingphotographerslondon.uk.com/

Make Money Online But Avoid Pitfalls

I think you have read the headlines … Make $ 10,000 in 30 days. In many cases, such words will be accompanied by a promotion to buy something, eg an e-book, or access to the system that will catapult your earnings beyond your wildest dreams. So the question is, are such schemes indeed true? Is it possible to make riches overnight? What should concern you right from the beginning is what the system or scheme is all about, particularly since laws of nature are clear … you can not create anything from anything. If you expect to pay $ 47 for an e-book and make $ 10,000 overnight without effort, then you have it wrong from the word go.

There are many ways to make a living online, many of them legitimate but quite a number exaggerated. However, what is comforting is that human nature is curious and therefore has the power to conduct research. A system that makes a lot of promises may indeed be legit or bogus, but with all the online tools available, it is possible to filter the wheat from the chaff. For instance, if a program offers a trial period, by all means try it out and opt out if it does not work to your satisfaction. Such systems will typically ask for a very low payment to subscribe (eg $ 1) for a trial period, and if satisfied, pay the full amount.

If you are thinking about making an online income, affiliate marketing may be your very best route because the start-up costs are low. Affiliate marketing typically involves promoting products on behalf of a reputable party who pays you a commission depending on your effort. This kind of online business can be quite rewarding especially if you know the basics of internet marketing and use them to your advantage.

The important thing with all online offers is to approach with caution, just enough to be able to gauge whether something is for real or a rip-off. Most importantly, engage in niches that interest you or you have an idea about. If you know nothing about pet dogs, you are unlikely to be successful in that niche. Similarly, if you have no clue about classic cars, you would be well advised to keep away from that field unless you are willing to put in time and effort to learn. The key words, as always, are time and effort. Those two words will never steer you wrong. Time and effort to learn, time and effort to listen to advice, and time and effort to be patient for results. If you are in the right program, progress will be slow at first, but will increase with time.